Segnaliamo il capitolo dal titolo “How many ‘Europes’? Left-Wing and Right-Wing Social Movements and their Visions of Europe” scritto da Manuela Caiani (SNS) e Manès Weisskircher (TU Dresden), pubblicato nel 2019 nel libro “The Routledge Handbook of Contemporary European Social Movements“, curato da Cristina Flesher Fominaya e Ramón Feenstra e pubblicato da Routledge.
The move from a “permissive consensus” to a “constraining dissensus” in EU politics was followed by various recent European crises, especially the Eurozone crisis and the “refugee crisis”. In such a context, the rise of social movements demanding a different kind of Europe does not come as surprise. This chapter explores the different visions of “Europe” that social movements have put forward, focusing on left-wing and far-right mobilization. Even though movement players generally do not discuss a possible finalité of European integration, many of them positively identify with a notion of “Europe”. Still, many left-wing movement players have envisioned European integration as radically different, especially as more democratic, more social, and more open towards migrants, mostly without explicitly questioning EU membership. While far-right movement players have not only been critical or rejective towards contemporary EU institutions, many of them have also positively identified with (exclusionary) visions of Europe, for example positioned against an alleged “Islamization” of the continent. Therefore, positive references to “Europe” are neither left-wing nor right-wing per se – social movements envision “Europe” in a great variety of ways.